What is behaviourism?
In the competitive market of digital learning solutions, it’s easy for providers to fall into the trap of ignoring sound theories of learning and only give their users a taste of the flavour of the month. Here at Thinqi, however, we draw on a range of theories — from the past and the present — to form the method and practice behind our smarter learning system. In this blog, we look at behavioural science and its impact on learning.
The following statement was made in 1924 by John Watson, who is often referred to as the founding father of behavioural science:
"Give me a dozen healthy infants, well-formed, and my own specified world to bring them up in and I'll guarantee to take any one at random and train him to become any type of specialist I might select—doctor, lawyer, artist, merchant-chief and, yes, even beggar-man and thief, regardless of his talents, penchants, tendencies, abilities, vocations and race of his ancestors.” (Watson, 2009, p.82).
What’s important to understand is that the quote effectively sums up one of the key concepts associated with an early branch of behaviourism; behaviour can be shaped by environmental stimuli. Modern behavioural science seeks to understand all human behaviour and the factors that influence it. Behavioural science today sees learners as active, responsive creators of their own learning and experience. Identifying influences on behaviour, such as language, emotions and internal feelings, is key to improving it.
Although modern behavioural science is almost unrecognisable from its origins in the early behaviourism of Watson and his peers, some elements have evolved into familiar teaching practice. Let’s summarise some of the key tenets of behavioural science before looking at how it can be applied to education.
Key principles of behavioural science:
Behavioural science focuses on shaping behaviour and how it can be changed or moulded by external and internal stimuli.
In order to create behavioural change, learners repeat a desired behaviour until it becomes automatic. The desired behaviour is encouraged through reinforcement. Learners form an association between the desired behaviour and the end result which leads to an increase in that behaviour.
Some early behaviourists suggested that tasks should be broken down into small, achievable steps so that learners can work towards an end goal and demonstrate achievement. More recently, behavioural scientists have looked at how ‘nudging’ specific actions can help people to achieve an end goal.
Behavioural science tells us that emotional reactions such as anxiety, avoidance and optimism can become conditioned responses to stimuli. This means that it’s important to create learning environments that promote positive emotional responses and encourage learning.
How to shape behaviour in a learning environment
So, how can you actively shape behaviour in the learning environment? Here are a few simple steps you can take.
1. Give praise
Praise from a practitioner is key to supporting learners in developing appropriate behaviours that enable learning. From a behaviourist perspective, praise given in response to appropriate behaviour is an extrinsic reward that reinforces that behaviour. In his book, ‘Psychology for the Classroom: Behaviourism’, John Woollard explains that praise, celebration, approval and token economy are all examples of interventions for behaviour modification through positive reinforcement.
Consider how you can build positive reinforcement into your lessons or materials. For example, the Thinqi learning system enables you to easily provide frequent feedback and praise through formative and summative assessments.
2. Model positive learning behaviours
Modeling required behaviour is also useful. What can you do to exhibit the behaviours you are attempting to foster? Learning systems such as Thinqi allow you to reinforce desired outcomes by providing exemplar resources for learners to compare their own work against. This helps to familiarise them with good practice and to model it moving forward.
3. Focus on learner experience
Knowing that behaviour is influenced by conditioned emotional responses means that it’s important to consider learners’ experiences of learning. Is the process supportive, accessible and enjoyable?
Thinqi helps you to create positive learning environments that enable learning; for example, ‘signposts’ at regular intervals help users to find their way. These signposts take the form of easily-accessible menus, learning outcomes, and section introductions. Along with bite-sized content, smart recommendations aligned to personal learning journeys and thriving discussion spaces, it’s a learning experience worth returning for time and again.
Consider putting into practice some of the top tips from this blog, and in Part 2 of this series we’ll take a closer look at more behavioural principles and explain why we ask our learners to ‘identify’, ‘summarise’ or ‘recognise’, rather than to simply ‘understand’.